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Toughness of theory of relativity part-1



Important Events in Einstein’s Life:

Einstein remembered two events of his life. The first incident was when his father gifted him a compass at the age of five. The second specific incident was the first introduction to Euclid’s geometry. After finishing his studies, Einstein decided to do the teaching work, but he could not get a teacher’s job. A few days later he got a job at the Swiss patent office. Einstein loved a Serbian girl named Mileva Marić. One writer wrote that both of them often used to read books of physics together in the library.

Eventually, he married Marie. Einstein took most of his life away from other people and religious beliefs, due to which people embellish him with titles like ‘Absent-minded genius’.

While working at the patent office, it is surprising to see that Einstein worked on the broad theory of theoretical physics. From 1901 Einstein published his works each year in the German magazine ‘Yearbook of Physics’. Interestingly, Einstein did not have much knowledge of contemporary science at that time. In 1905, when Einstein was only 26 years old, he published four research papers. These were the same research papers that shook the theoretical physics. One of those papers was very long. The name of that research paper was ‘On the Electro-Dynamics of Moving bodies’

This is the research paper, which changed the concept of human being. In fact, it was the description of the special theory of relativity. Nevertheless, Einstein’s theory was found in physics in 1909. By presenting Einstein’s general theory of relativity in 1915, once again, the foundation of physics shook. Further, the main assumptions of relativity theory will be highlighted (we will not discuss much Einstein’s life now and will tell the same thing about Einstein’s life by which work will go, otherwise we will be away from the essence of the article).

Einstein received the Nobel Prize in 1922, but the funny thing is that the Nobel Prize did not meet him for the theory of relativity but was found to search for the photoelectric effect. In 1952, Einstein received a proposal to become Israel’s president, which he rejected. In the last days of his life, he continued to work on ‘Grand Unified Field theory’. All-time great scientist Albert Einstein died on April 18, 1955.

Einstein is considered a Newton-class physicist. To understand the theory of relativity, Newton, Huygens, James Clark Maxwell returns to the ideas related to light related to the past.

Light: wave or particle?

In 1673, Isaac Newton published a research paper in London’s ‘Royal Society’. The title of his research paper was- ‘New theory about colors and light’. This was the same paper in which it was first described that the white light is a mixture of different colors of the spectrum. In this research, Newton also gave the theory related to light, which is known as the Corpuscular theory of Light. According to this principle, light is composed of small particles. Newton gave the carpaskular name to these small light particles.

Newton believed that light moves in a straight line because the particle can only move in a straight line. On the other hand, while Newton was working closely with light emissions, the heightens were also working on the theory of light emission. According to Hyigen’s theory, light is made of a wave. According to Hyigens, the moving circle of light behaves in such a way that each point of the waveform is a new source of radiation with a uniform frequency. This is known as Huygen’s Wave Theory of Light.

But in the science-world, Newton was very dominant at that time, so Huigence’s theory did not get proper importance. Thomas Young, a British scientist, has verified the wave theory of Hyigens experimentally through his experiments, but still, that theory could not find that much importance in the physical world.

The situation has become quite absurd, which of these two principles is right? Today we know that due to their experimental conditions both theories are correct. But, as the sound waves travel by the help of air (air), so does the need for any medium for light waves also? Because the light passes through zero to reach the distant stars? In this case, the question arises that after all, what was that medium?

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-4



Can the velocity of light be changed? The short answer according to the above-mentioned experiment is-no. The speed of light is completely immutable. The velocity of anybody can be artificially reduced or enhanced, except for the velocity of light and sound. For information, let us know that the speed of light is much faster than the rotating velocity of our earth (about 32 km / s). Its velocity is about 300,000 kilometers / km

Special theory of relativity

What Einstein taught in physics in Zurich was based on Newton’s old rules and principles. When Einstein was about 16 years old, he experienced that some incidents were not favorable to the Newtonian rules, but still, he did not oppose it theoretically at that time. But in the 1905 paper, he expressed his views. The name of that important research paper was ‘On the Electrodynamics of moving bodies explained.’

The special theory of relativity is based on two hypotheses (Postulates). First Meditation: Our daily experience shows us that the speed of things in a straight and uniform velocity vehicle is not very different from the speed of the goods in the stopped car. If I throw a ball in a steady vehicle, the ball will fall straight into my hands and the ball thrown in the moving vehicle will also come back in my hands. If we do not pay attention to technical hiccups, then everything in a moving vehicle with the same speed varies like that in a steady vehicle.

In this way, we can conclude that the movement of objects in all laboratories, which are relative to each other, follow the same laws of physics. It is also called the relativity of motion. But the interesting fact is that the first hypothesis of special relativity was not discovered by Einstein but by Galileo Galilei.

Second hypothesis:

Under this hypothesis, Einstein believed that the speed of light is always constant and that the speed of the source or observation has no effect on it. As the obvious conclusion of the first hypothesis is that the values ​​of velocities vary for different laboratories moving relative to each other. But the velocity of light remains the same for different laboratories on the other side. That is why it is not relative, but it proves to be absolute. This hypothesis was also recognized in physics after the experiments of Mikeson-Morley. So what did Einstein give the new ideas in these old ways? Indeed, Einstein presented these hypotheses in a joint form, not as a different rule of physics.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-3



Suppose the above device was planted in a position that side AB is parallel to the velocity v of the earth at that time. Let’s also assume that the speed of light in ether is C. According to Newton’s theories or ancient theory, the velocity of light relative to the device along with AB is forward-to-C and is C + V after reflection. The speed of light along with the AC (square root) C is square-V square. If the length of AB and AC is the same, the time it takes to move light-radiated from A to B and the length of time going from A to C and coming back to A will be different.

In the experiment, the entropy meter was kept in such a way that AB was parallel to the velocity of the Earth and the conditions of the striking stripes were noted from the telescope. Then the device was rotated at an angle of 90 degrees so that AC became parallel to the velocity of the earth and AB is perpendicular to it. We know that the time spent on traveling between two light-radiates was different, so there should be a difference in the location of the intermediate stripes. Still, despite the frequent use of the transit, the transit was not found. This experiment was done in different places and in different seasons yet the transit was not found. Therefore, no evidence of any kind of speed, deviation, flutter etc. could not be found on passing through the ether.

This experiment concluded that the earth is either stagnant? Or the ethereal theory is wrong? And at that time it had been completely proven that the earth was dynamic. So it was unrealistic to believe that the earth was stagnant. At the same time, it was also clear that ether did not have any qualitative value. It also became clear that the idea of scientists related to ether was misleading. But, if it is true that ether is not the medium of light, and the light is a wave, then by which medium does light disseminate in the entire universe?

According to Mickelson-Morley, the answer was that light was a wave that travels without any medium. This experiment also showed that the speed of light does not depend on the source of light or the speed of origin and the velocity of light is uniform at all places. This experiment also came to light that Newton’s theory of relativity did not apply to objects like a light. According to this principle, the position of the observer can change the speed of some object, the principle of Newton relativity.

Imagine that there are two brothers. One is Pradeep and Sandeep is the other name. Pradeep is running at a speed of 10 km / h and Sandeep is running at a speed of 05 km/hr. According to Sandeep, his brother Pradeep is moving at a speed of 05 km / h. Then why should there be any difference in the matter of light? The answer is that light behaves differently than all motions.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-2



Ether’s hypothesis

At that time scientists imagined a strange medium for the movement of light, which was pervading in the whole universe. This medium was named ‘ether’. This medium filled up all the space (space) from ‘one star to the other stars’. This theory appeared to be verified when James Clerk Maxwell introduced the optical-wave as electromagnetic waves. From Maxwell’s equations, it came to the conclusion that electromagnetic waves are velocity equal to the light, due to which accurate calculation of the velocity of light was also done.

Scientists envisioning a medium called ether also said that ‘moving objects in ether never take such a thing’, as if a wooden cage (piece) floating in water does not pull water (water) with you. Scientists giving ether theory also believed that ether is world-wide and stable and the variance of light would also be different in different directions. Imagine that we have a car that is steady relative to ether, then the variance of light will be different in different directions. If ether has its existence, can its existence be certified?

Is ether’s existence? or not?

By interrupting the medium like ether, there are many such questions that can not be answered. As we study the properties of air (the medium of vibration of sound) we do not only do it with the observation of voice-variance but also with physics and chemical researchers. But ether does not participate in most physical and chemical activities. We can measure the pressure of the air, but the pressure of the ether cannot be measured. Along with that, we can also measure the density of air, but all attempts to know about the density of ether are sterile.

To physically verify the existence of ether, American physicist Abril Abraham Michelson performed the world-famous experiment in 1881. The main purpose of their experiment was to prove the ether theory. Michaelsen thought that if the world-wide ether is stable then due to passing through the ether, the earth had to face resistance and a stream of streams should flow into the ether.

The reader can assume that Michelson tried to find the relative motion of the Earth with ether through its use. Readers can also assume that Mickelson tried to know that the impact of the speed of light-source rather than the observer falls on the speed of light?

For this experiment, Michaelson created an instrument called Interferometer in 1881, with the help of which it could be used to treat the light as a scale. The results of that experiment were wonderful; According to which the starting motion of the Earth’s ether was zero. It meant that the earth was either motionless or the ether theory was wrong. Mikeson repeated this experiment with his associate Morley repeatedly, but he could not find ether. But their use became world-renowned despite repeated failures. Below we are presenting the details of that experiment.

Michelson-Morley experiments-Michelson-Morley experiment

Use of Mickelson and Morley
In the Michelson-Morley experiment, from the source S, the light collides at a 45-degree angle on a half-polished mirror A (see in the enclosed image). Part of the light goes to the mirror B and comes back to A again. Reflecting the remainder of the light reaches the mirror C and then from there comes back to A. Both get on the beams of light, where they produce ‘interference fringes’. These ‘interference stripes’ could be seen from the telescope. The device was placed on a very strong platform. That device could be rotated on the perpendicular axis of the floor.

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