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Best 5 Countries in Space Technology

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In the past, some countries have joined together in the field of space exploration, especially in China and India. Both nations have promising space programs that are highly valued by people in general and funded by their governments. With the enormous weight of the population in general, the United States government has had to significantly increase grants for researching new advances, research, and education.

The apparent permanence of innovation behind the Soviet Union prompted Congress and President Eisenhower to form two new organizations, ARPA (Agency for Advanced Research Projects, renamed DARPA in 1972) and NASA. The ARPA was responsible for investigating new developments because of its military application, and NASA was a non-military organization. The rest is history, made up of pioneers such as Jury Gagarin, Neil Armstrong and many others who have helped to put their countries on the list of the most advanced countries of space technology.

Before we turn to the summary of the most outstanding nations in space innovation, a small warning is expected. The largest part of European space is carried out by ESA, the European Space Agency. It is a joint effort of 22 States Parties giving them the opportunity to participate in space exploration. The ESA budget ($ 5.5 billion) would put it in our summary, but since it does not speak to a lonely nation, we decided to exclude it. Other European countries, however, came to the conclusion. We should see his identity.

Best 5 Countries in Space Technology Are:

1. United States

Since Neil Armstrong entered the moon, NASA has been the most important space organization on the planet. Although its subsidy has been reduced to just 0.50% of the government’s spending plan since its peak in the 1960s when it was 4.41%, various private interests in space exploration such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation or SpaceX have the US The space program was more than suppressed, helping America, the most advanced nation in space innovation.

2. Russia

Although some claim that the jury of the Gagarin jury is a distant memory, the Russian space program is still strong, despite all the disadvantages that the nation has had since the partition of the Soviet Union. Modernization projects are underway in the world’s largest space program with 250,000 people.

3. France

France was the third country in history to achieve an effective spatial distribution. His experience was then used to create the Ariane rocket family with ESA. His spatial approach in French Guiana is also used for the ESA propulsion. It is also the main office on the planet that UFO investigator has (or had) in their finances.

4. Japan

The latest office in our summary, JAXA, was founded in 2003 with the ultimate goal of simplifying Japan’s space program by bringing three different government agencies together. JAXA is a stable individual of the ISS and gave the Kibo space station the biggest module.

5. Germany

About one-third of the GAC budget plan is intended to subsidize ESA programs. However, Germany also has its own independent research companies, which are mainly associated with vitality and transportation.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-4

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Can the velocity of light be changed? The short answer according to the above-mentioned experiment is-no. The speed of light is completely immutable. The velocity of anybody can be artificially reduced or enhanced, except for the velocity of light and sound. For information, let us know that the speed of light is much faster than the rotating velocity of our earth (about 32 km / s). Its velocity is about 300,000 kilometers / km

Special theory of relativity

What Einstein taught in physics in Zurich was based on Newton’s old rules and principles. When Einstein was about 16 years old, he experienced that some incidents were not favorable to the Newtonian rules, but still, he did not oppose it theoretically at that time. But in the 1905 paper, he expressed his views. The name of that important research paper was ‘On the Electrodynamics of moving bodies explained.’

The special theory of relativity is based on two hypotheses (Postulates). First Meditation: Our daily experience shows us that the speed of things in a straight and uniform velocity vehicle is not very different from the speed of the goods in the stopped car. If I throw a ball in a steady vehicle, the ball will fall straight into my hands and the ball thrown in the moving vehicle will also come back in my hands. If we do not pay attention to technical hiccups, then everything in a moving vehicle with the same speed varies like that in a steady vehicle.

In this way, we can conclude that the movement of objects in all laboratories, which are relative to each other, follow the same laws of physics. It is also called the relativity of motion. But the interesting fact is that the first hypothesis of special relativity was not discovered by Einstein but by Galileo Galilei.

Second hypothesis:

Under this hypothesis, Einstein believed that the speed of light is always constant and that the speed of the source or observation has no effect on it. As the obvious conclusion of the first hypothesis is that the values ​​of velocities vary for different laboratories moving relative to each other. But the velocity of light remains the same for different laboratories on the other side. That is why it is not relative, but it proves to be absolute. This hypothesis was also recognized in physics after the experiments of Mikeson-Morley. So what did Einstein give the new ideas in these old ways? Indeed, Einstein presented these hypotheses in a joint form, not as a different rule of physics.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-3

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Suppose the above device was planted in a position that side AB is parallel to the velocity v of the earth at that time. Let’s also assume that the speed of light in ether is C. According to Newton’s theories or ancient theory, the velocity of light relative to the device along with AB is forward-to-C and is C + V after reflection. The speed of light along with the AC (square root) C is square-V square. If the length of AB and AC is the same, the time it takes to move light-radiated from A to B and the length of time going from A to C and coming back to A will be different.

In the experiment, the entropy meter was kept in such a way that AB was parallel to the velocity of the Earth and the conditions of the striking stripes were noted from the telescope. Then the device was rotated at an angle of 90 degrees so that AC became parallel to the velocity of the earth and AB is perpendicular to it. We know that the time spent on traveling between two light-radiates was different, so there should be a difference in the location of the intermediate stripes. Still, despite the frequent use of the transit, the transit was not found. This experiment was done in different places and in different seasons yet the transit was not found. Therefore, no evidence of any kind of speed, deviation, flutter etc. could not be found on passing through the ether.

This experiment concluded that the earth is either stagnant? Or the ethereal theory is wrong? And at that time it had been completely proven that the earth was dynamic. So it was unrealistic to believe that the earth was stagnant. At the same time, it was also clear that ether did not have any qualitative value. It also became clear that the idea of scientists related to ether was misleading. But, if it is true that ether is not the medium of light, and the light is a wave, then by which medium does light disseminate in the entire universe?

According to Mickelson-Morley, the answer was that light was a wave that travels without any medium. This experiment also showed that the speed of light does not depend on the source of light or the speed of origin and the velocity of light is uniform at all places. This experiment also came to light that Newton’s theory of relativity did not apply to objects like a light. According to this principle, the position of the observer can change the speed of some object, the principle of Newton relativity.

Imagine that there are two brothers. One is Pradeep and Sandeep is the other name. Pradeep is running at a speed of 10 km / h and Sandeep is running at a speed of 05 km/hr. According to Sandeep, his brother Pradeep is moving at a speed of 05 km / h. Then why should there be any difference in the matter of light? The answer is that light behaves differently than all motions.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-2

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Ether’s hypothesis

At that time scientists imagined a strange medium for the movement of light, which was pervading in the whole universe. This medium was named ‘ether’. This medium filled up all the space (space) from ‘one star to the other stars’. This theory appeared to be verified when James Clerk Maxwell introduced the optical-wave as electromagnetic waves. From Maxwell’s equations, it came to the conclusion that electromagnetic waves are velocity equal to the light, due to which accurate calculation of the velocity of light was also done.

Scientists envisioning a medium called ether also said that ‘moving objects in ether never take such a thing’, as if a wooden cage (piece) floating in water does not pull water (water) with you. Scientists giving ether theory also believed that ether is world-wide and stable and the variance of light would also be different in different directions. Imagine that we have a car that is steady relative to ether, then the variance of light will be different in different directions. If ether has its existence, can its existence be certified?

Is ether’s existence? or not?

By interrupting the medium like ether, there are many such questions that can not be answered. As we study the properties of air (the medium of vibration of sound) we do not only do it with the observation of voice-variance but also with physics and chemical researchers. But ether does not participate in most physical and chemical activities. We can measure the pressure of the air, but the pressure of the ether cannot be measured. Along with that, we can also measure the density of air, but all attempts to know about the density of ether are sterile.

To physically verify the existence of ether, American physicist Abril Abraham Michelson performed the world-famous experiment in 1881. The main purpose of their experiment was to prove the ether theory. Michaelsen thought that if the world-wide ether is stable then due to passing through the ether, the earth had to face resistance and a stream of streams should flow into the ether.

The reader can assume that Michelson tried to find the relative motion of the Earth with ether through its use. Readers can also assume that Mickelson tried to know that the impact of the speed of light-source rather than the observer falls on the speed of light?

For this experiment, Michaelson created an instrument called Interferometer in 1881, with the help of which it could be used to treat the light as a scale. The results of that experiment were wonderful; According to which the starting motion of the Earth’s ether was zero. It meant that the earth was either motionless or the ether theory was wrong. Mikeson repeated this experiment with his associate Morley repeatedly, but he could not find ether. But their use became world-renowned despite repeated failures. Below we are presenting the details of that experiment.

Michelson-Morley experiments-Michelson-Morley experiment

Use of Mickelson and Morley
In the Michelson-Morley experiment, from the source S, the light collides at a 45-degree angle on a half-polished mirror A (see in the enclosed image). Part of the light goes to the mirror B and comes back to A again. Reflecting the remainder of the light reaches the mirror C and then from there comes back to A. Both get on the beams of light, where they produce ‘interference fringes’. These ‘interference stripes’ could be seen from the telescope. The device was placed on a very strong platform. That device could be rotated on the perpendicular axis of the floor.

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