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Advantages of Optical Fibre



The optical fiber cable is reduced in the rate of photons versus the speed of electrons in terms of differences in cable transmission. While fiber optic cables do not move at the speed of light, they are very close together, about 31% slower. Here are more benefits.


Can hackers get access to commercial cables relatively easily because they are listening or using other simple methods? The only way to penetrate the optical fiber is to physically cut the fibers, which can cause the transmission to disappear. Fiber Optic Cable is one of the most powerful ways to improve the security of your business from cybercrime.

2. Fiber optic transmission has low attenuation

At long distances, fiber optic cables have less damage than copper cables. This is known as low attenuation. Copper interconnects can easily transmit information up to 9,328 feet, while fiber optic cables can travel between 984.2 feet and 24.8 miles because of reduced performance.

3. HD video support

For many companies, video training and teleconferencing are important tools for employee training, advertising, and product sales. With a fiber optic system, many businesses can easily increase their investment in video conferencing as one of the best long-term business tools without sacrificing bandwidth. Research shows that investing more in video conferencing saves thousands of businesses every year and even months, especially when it can reduce business travel too much.

4. Resistance to interference

Copper wire is generally prone to electromagnetic interference, which may be due to the proximity of heavy equipment. PMMA fiber cables are not damaged by electromagnetic interference. If your organization shares a telecommunications room with other companies, fiber can easily protect your connection so that it does not disappear when other organizations use devices that can interfere with their connection in the same room.

5.Fiber Cables Are Resistant To Electromagnetic Intrusion

Copper cables, if improperly installed, cause electromagnetic currents that can disturb other cables and damage the network. Unlike other real cables, fiber optic cables typically have electromagnetic currents.

6. Symmetrical speed

Symmetric speed is a term that refers to the same charge and discharge rates in a connection. Thanks to the fiber-optic cable connection, your employees enjoy the same speed when loading and unloading.

Is asymmetrical speed necessary? This is certainly not essential for commercial procedures, but it is useful. Symmetric speed enhancements are advances that reflect the use of networks. Today’s employees can download video content, files, or make calls online when they work, as opposed to what people did decades ago. Symmetric speed allows users to support large downloads and downloads simultaneously over their data connection.

7.Fire Safe

Another advantage of PMMA fiber optic cables is that they do not pose a fire hazard. This may also be related to the same reason that the cable does not produce EM.

8.Fiber Cables usually do not break easily

This means you do not have to worry about replacing them as often as copper wires. Although the fiber is made of glass, copper wires are damaged rather than fiber cables.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-4



Can the velocity of light be changed? The short answer according to the above-mentioned experiment is-no. The speed of light is completely immutable. The velocity of anybody can be artificially reduced or enhanced, except for the velocity of light and sound. For information, let us know that the speed of light is much faster than the rotating velocity of our earth (about 32 km / s). Its velocity is about 300,000 kilometers / km

Special theory of relativity

What Einstein taught in physics in Zurich was based on Newton’s old rules and principles. When Einstein was about 16 years old, he experienced that some incidents were not favorable to the Newtonian rules, but still, he did not oppose it theoretically at that time. But in the 1905 paper, he expressed his views. The name of that important research paper was ‘On the Electrodynamics of moving bodies explained.’

The special theory of relativity is based on two hypotheses (Postulates). First Meditation: Our daily experience shows us that the speed of things in a straight and uniform velocity vehicle is not very different from the speed of the goods in the stopped car. If I throw a ball in a steady vehicle, the ball will fall straight into my hands and the ball thrown in the moving vehicle will also come back in my hands. If we do not pay attention to technical hiccups, then everything in a moving vehicle with the same speed varies like that in a steady vehicle.

In this way, we can conclude that the movement of objects in all laboratories, which are relative to each other, follow the same laws of physics. It is also called the relativity of motion. But the interesting fact is that the first hypothesis of special relativity was not discovered by Einstein but by Galileo Galilei.

Second hypothesis:

Under this hypothesis, Einstein believed that the speed of light is always constant and that the speed of the source or observation has no effect on it. As the obvious conclusion of the first hypothesis is that the values ​​of velocities vary for different laboratories moving relative to each other. But the velocity of light remains the same for different laboratories on the other side. That is why it is not relative, but it proves to be absolute. This hypothesis was also recognized in physics after the experiments of Mikeson-Morley. So what did Einstein give the new ideas in these old ways? Indeed, Einstein presented these hypotheses in a joint form, not as a different rule of physics.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-3



Suppose the above device was planted in a position that side AB is parallel to the velocity v of the earth at that time. Let’s also assume that the speed of light in ether is C. According to Newton’s theories or ancient theory, the velocity of light relative to the device along with AB is forward-to-C and is C + V after reflection. The speed of light along with the AC (square root) C is square-V square. If the length of AB and AC is the same, the time it takes to move light-radiated from A to B and the length of time going from A to C and coming back to A will be different.

In the experiment, the entropy meter was kept in such a way that AB was parallel to the velocity of the Earth and the conditions of the striking stripes were noted from the telescope. Then the device was rotated at an angle of 90 degrees so that AC became parallel to the velocity of the earth and AB is perpendicular to it. We know that the time spent on traveling between two light-radiates was different, so there should be a difference in the location of the intermediate stripes. Still, despite the frequent use of the transit, the transit was not found. This experiment was done in different places and in different seasons yet the transit was not found. Therefore, no evidence of any kind of speed, deviation, flutter etc. could not be found on passing through the ether.

This experiment concluded that the earth is either stagnant? Or the ethereal theory is wrong? And at that time it had been completely proven that the earth was dynamic. So it was unrealistic to believe that the earth was stagnant. At the same time, it was also clear that ether did not have any qualitative value. It also became clear that the idea of scientists related to ether was misleading. But, if it is true that ether is not the medium of light, and the light is a wave, then by which medium does light disseminate in the entire universe?

According to Mickelson-Morley, the answer was that light was a wave that travels without any medium. This experiment also showed that the speed of light does not depend on the source of light or the speed of origin and the velocity of light is uniform at all places. This experiment also came to light that Newton’s theory of relativity did not apply to objects like a light. According to this principle, the position of the observer can change the speed of some object, the principle of Newton relativity.

Imagine that there are two brothers. One is Pradeep and Sandeep is the other name. Pradeep is running at a speed of 10 km / h and Sandeep is running at a speed of 05 km/hr. According to Sandeep, his brother Pradeep is moving at a speed of 05 km / h. Then why should there be any difference in the matter of light? The answer is that light behaves differently than all motions.

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Toughness of theory of relativity part-2



Ether’s hypothesis

At that time scientists imagined a strange medium for the movement of light, which was pervading in the whole universe. This medium was named ‘ether’. This medium filled up all the space (space) from ‘one star to the other stars’. This theory appeared to be verified when James Clerk Maxwell introduced the optical-wave as electromagnetic waves. From Maxwell’s equations, it came to the conclusion that electromagnetic waves are velocity equal to the light, due to which accurate calculation of the velocity of light was also done.

Scientists envisioning a medium called ether also said that ‘moving objects in ether never take such a thing’, as if a wooden cage (piece) floating in water does not pull water (water) with you. Scientists giving ether theory also believed that ether is world-wide and stable and the variance of light would also be different in different directions. Imagine that we have a car that is steady relative to ether, then the variance of light will be different in different directions. If ether has its existence, can its existence be certified?

Is ether’s existence? or not?

By interrupting the medium like ether, there are many such questions that can not be answered. As we study the properties of air (the medium of vibration of sound) we do not only do it with the observation of voice-variance but also with physics and chemical researchers. But ether does not participate in most physical and chemical activities. We can measure the pressure of the air, but the pressure of the ether cannot be measured. Along with that, we can also measure the density of air, but all attempts to know about the density of ether are sterile.

To physically verify the existence of ether, American physicist Abril Abraham Michelson performed the world-famous experiment in 1881. The main purpose of their experiment was to prove the ether theory. Michaelsen thought that if the world-wide ether is stable then due to passing through the ether, the earth had to face resistance and a stream of streams should flow into the ether.

The reader can assume that Michelson tried to find the relative motion of the Earth with ether through its use. Readers can also assume that Mickelson tried to know that the impact of the speed of light-source rather than the observer falls on the speed of light?

For this experiment, Michaelson created an instrument called Interferometer in 1881, with the help of which it could be used to treat the light as a scale. The results of that experiment were wonderful; According to which the starting motion of the Earth’s ether was zero. It meant that the earth was either motionless or the ether theory was wrong. Mikeson repeated this experiment with his associate Morley repeatedly, but he could not find ether. But their use became world-renowned despite repeated failures. Below we are presenting the details of that experiment.

Michelson-Morley experiments-Michelson-Morley experiment

Use of Mickelson and Morley
In the Michelson-Morley experiment, from the source S, the light collides at a 45-degree angle on a half-polished mirror A (see in the enclosed image). Part of the light goes to the mirror B and comes back to A again. Reflecting the remainder of the light reaches the mirror C and then from there comes back to A. Both get on the beams of light, where they produce ‘interference fringes’. These ‘interference stripes’ could be seen from the telescope. The device was placed on a very strong platform. That device could be rotated on the perpendicular axis of the floor.

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